HOW TO SOUNDPROOF WINDOWS IN YOUR HOME
Living in the inner city, noise pollution is almost impossible to avoid. But by learning how to soundproof windows, and by installing soundproof products, you can return peace and quiet to your home.
Our ultimate guide to soundproofing windows is designed to give you everything you need to know about how to reduce noise pollution in your home. From how we understand what noise pollution is, to how acoustic windows work, and house soundproof windows are installed, we hope to cover all the questions you may have. To navigate our guide, simply use the links below.
WHAT IS NOISE POLLUTION?
Noise is simply sound that is loud or unpleasant or causes disturbances. Living in an urban environment noise levels can become extremely annoying or even harmful, and affect both your life and your health. It is at this point that noise becomes noise pollution.
TYPES OF NOISE POLLUTION
Although noise pollution can take practically any form, for the purposes of soundproof window design (and because these are the sources that most people encounter), we find it helpful to split noise pollution into the following sub-categories. It is worth noting that most properties will experience noise pollution from a variety of sources, but by focusing on dealing with the main culprit, we can find a solution that will best serve you.
Depending upon how far you are located from the flightpath, noise pollution from planes can range from a minor to severe disturbance. For those 1 mile below the flightpath noise can reach up to 97dB. Prolonged exposure to noise of this level (more than 1 hour per day) poses serious risks to your health.
In a 2013 study carried out by the British Medical Journal, those who lived near Heathrow airport were 10-20% more likely to be admitted to hospital for a stroke and other cardiovascular diseases. A German study also revealed that being exposed to an average noise level of 60dB increased coronary heart disease by 61% in men and 80% in women.
Do you suffer from planes landing near your home? We can help!
Affecting practically everyone in the city, noise pollution from road traffic can be a real pain. With motorbikes, buses, cars and mopeds all taking to the streets it can be a real cacophony of sounds with levels that can vary any time of day or night. In most cases noise pollution from the road will be between 45-75dB.
On the lower end of the spectrum, the sound of road traffic will be a casual annoyance, though prolonged exposure can cause a dramatic increase in cardiovascular diseases. In particular, noise traffic exposure can be particularly problematic at night, where the desirable noise level is 30dB.
Disturbed by the constant rumble of cars? We can help!
Anti-social noise pollution is a term that encompasses many sources. Whether it’s a local nightclub, noisy neighbours or the sounds of a busy high street. In many cases this doesn’t even need to meet a high decibel level, but can simply be a consistent nuisance. In fact, most councils do not agree on what an acceptable noise level is.
In the UK there is what is known as ‘statutory nuisance’. This is the point the noise has become “prejudicial to health or a nuisance”. However, even if a case were to be taken to court, there is no guarantee that anything can be done to prevent recurrence. It’s at this stage that many clients approach us to discuss their options.
Noisy neighbours and crowded nightclubs keeping you awake? We can help!
RAIL OR TUBE NOISE
Living near a train station is extremely desirable. Though the distinct rumble of tubes or the chug of freight trains can quickly become a physical pain. At 100 feet away a diesel train will max out at around 80dB, the same as a freight train from 15’ away. With prolonged exposure, this level of noise pollution can cause permanent hearing damage.
Tired of listening to the tube? Or the sirens of speeding crosscountry trains? We can help!
HOW DO SOUNDPROOF WINDOWS WORK?
Soundproof windows reduce noise pollution by simply causing the sound wave to lose power. This is achieved by using materials that will absorb and reflect sound. In particular, soundproof windows employ acoustic glass as well as sealants and other acoustic elements to combat noise.
Wood is naturally a fairly good conductor of sound due to the fact that it is not particularly elastic or dense. This means that untreated timber will not do much to soundproof your property. However, the designs of soundproof windows work to combat this natural deficiency.
HOW TIMBER IS CUT
Wood is what is known as an anisotropic material (it is stronger when cut perpendicular to the grain than when cut longitudinally). So when it comes to soundproof windows, the timber is cut against the grain to provide greater resistance to noise.
HOW THE FRAME IS MADE
Soundproof windows tend to be made from two or more bits of wood that have been glued together. This provides greater noise reduction values by compensating for coincidence frequencies (the frequency at which a material will naturally amplify a sound). It also prevents the frame from swelling.
THE TYPE OF WOOD
Although more expensive hardwoods tend to be denser and provide a greater finish, the additional noise reduction is negligible.
HOW THE TIMBER IS TREATED
A timber treatment is applied in the factory. This ensures that the timber is protected against issues from swelling, and hardens the wood to lessen its elasticity.
TYPES OF SOUNDPROOF GLAZING
Compared to wood, glass is an inelastic material which should mean it’s a poor conductor of sound. However, the glass used in windows is relatively thin, meaning that it will not do much to soundproof your home. This is why soundproof windows will use acoustic glass.
Let’s take a closer look at how soundproof glass works.
POLYVINYL BUTYRAL (PVB)
In noise reduction glazing, the panes of glass are separated by a layer of PVB. This is designed to prevent sounds in the 1000 – 3000 Hz range (the most sensitive range for humans) getting through the glazing by both absorbing and reflecting the noise. PVB typically offers a reduction of around 10dB, which is considered to be a 50% reduction in perceived loudness.
MICRO RUBBER SPACERS
Fitted around the windows are micro-rubber spacers. These spacers create a barrier between the window frame and the sill, preventing noise from flanking around the timber.
As sound cannot travel in a vacuum, some highly advanced glazing units create a vacuum between the glazing to stop sound dead. Unfortunately, this isn’t very practical in most applications.
HOW ACOUSTIC GLAZING WORKS
Soundproof windows will use acoustic glazing of different thicknesses depending on the extent of the noise reduction required and the origin of the sound. In all cases, two different thicknesses of glass will be used to combat the coincidence frequency.
COINCIDENCE FREQUENCY IN GLASS
Any sheet of glass will have what we call a ‘coincidence frequency’. This is the frequency at which, due to the shape and the size of the glazing, sound will be transferred or amplified rather than dampened. The coincidence frequency is compensated for by using thicknesses of glass with a differential of 30%.
Use the following coincidence calculator to learn more.
TIMBER VS UPVC WINDOWS
If you’re looking up how to soundproof windows, the difference between uPVC and timber is significant. Companies that provide uPVC and timber soundproof windows will offer similar, if not the same levels of noise reduction products in low (entry) dB rating – up to 40dB. Those windows are not fit for purpose when it comes to combating traffic noise, where noise levels reach 70dB. In comparison, our entry-level noise reduction windows start at 43dB and go up to 51dB.
The following table is a comparison between timber and uPVC windows, which may help you decide what’s best for your home.
|Bespoke timber frames can be installed in buildings and properties in conservation areas.||Timber windows, especially bespoke designs, can be expensive.|
|Timber windows offer a greater variety in design.||Though timber windows will last an extremely long time, they will require regular maintenance in order to perform optimally.|
|They will add value to your property.||Due to the fact that the windows will often be made to order, wait time for installation can be long.|
|uPVC windows are cheaper than timber.||Overall offer low level of noise reduction, due to their construction, the glazing which can be fitted and installation method.|
|Can be manufactured rapidly.||They cannot be installed in listed buildings or most conservation areas.|
|uPVC windows are made from unsustainable materials and will not biodegrade.|
|uPVC soundproof windows tend to have a lifespan of around 20 years.|
|Replacing timber windows with uPVC will remove value from your property.|
SOUNDPROOF WINDOWS COSTS
You can expect soundproof windows costs to be considerably higher than standard windows. Each project will be quoted for individually, however, a rough estimation of the starting costs for soundproof windows is outlined below:
- For medium sized soundproof sash windows, you can expect to pay upwards of ~£2,200 per window.
- For medium sized soundproof casement windows, the price will begin around ~£890 per window.
- For secondary solutions, such as a high performance secondary window you can expect to pay from ~£1,200 and up.
- The cost of Soundproof French doors begin around £3,500 per unit.
Thinking about installing soundproof windows in your home?
HOW TO SOUNDPROOF WINDOWS
Don’t worry, installing new acoustic windows isn’t the only solution. If you want to know how to soundproof windows already installed in your home, there are a few things you can do that will help. Do bear in mind that these solutions will not be as effective as replacing your windows!
1. PLUG UP ANY AIR GAPS IN YOUR WINDOW
Upon close inspection, you may find tiny little air gaps around your windows that are letting noise in. These can be in the frame or between the glazing and the frame. The good news is that both can be pretty effectively treated and can make a considerable difference.
To begin, try running your hand around the frame and feel for any small air draughts. Depending on where they’re located, you have two simple options to choose from.
Acoustic caulk is a product specifically designed to plug air gaps and provide a noise insulation barrier. What’s better, it is fairly inexpensive and requires no specialist knowledge to use. Here’s how it’s done.
- Take all old caulk off with a putty knife. Be careful not to damage the frame!
- Use a clean cloth and non-abrasive soap to clean away any dirt or grime.
- Place masking tape around the frame to ensure you don’t make a mess with the caulk.
- Apply the caulk at a 45 degree angle slowly and evenly.
- Smooth the caulk using a butter knife or spoon.
- Remove the masking tape and leave the caulk to fully dry.
Weatherstripping is fitted inside the opening of your windows. These are known as ‘window jambs’. Made out of materials like foam and silicone, it is designed to prevent any rain getting in. However, it also does a great job of plugging air gaps. Plus installation couldn’t be much simpler.
- Clean around the window jambs using non-abrasive soap and warm water. Make sure to dry the surface once you are done.
- Cut the weatherstripping to the exact dimensions of your windows.
- Stick the strip down firmly, ensuring that there are no gaps in the corners or folds that may prevent the window closing.
2. INSTALL NOISE REDUCTION CURTAINS OR BLINDS
It should be noted that these products will not do much to prevent noise getting into your home. What they will do is change the acoustic properties of the room. That is, they will reduce echo. They can also improve thermal performance and, well, cover your windows.
The key things to look out for with acoustic curtains and blinds are:
- The thicker the better. More mass means less noise.
- Curtains will tend to perform better because they can cover more of the frame.
3. INSTALL ACOUSTIC WINDOW INSERTS
There are a wide range of acoustic window inserts available on the market. These are designed to be installed on the inside of your windows and provide an additional barrier to noise. Which is good if you cannot replace your existing windows.
With so many products out there promising different decibel and percentage level reductions in noise, it can be hard to understand which product will work best and how effective it can be. We cannot verify the claims of any these companies, but if you’re thinking about buying acoustic inserts for your windows there are some key things to bear in mind:
- The insert itself will be made effectively redundant if there are any air gaps around it.
- Acoustic inserts will not be effective if noise is entering through the structure of your property.
- You need to make sure that your windows will still function properly with the acoustic insert inside of your sill.
- If your noise complaints are severe, you will be better off installing a proper secondary window for soundproofing.
- Houses in humid/damp locations may have problems with condensation and mold between the insert and the window.
4. ADD ADDITIONAL GLAZING/ACRYLIC PANELS TO YOUR WINDOWS
Also known as magnetic secondary glazing and acrylic windows, these work by adding more mass to your glass which makes it more difficult for noise to enter. They require that you install a secondary frame on top of your existing one. You then attach the glass or acrylic panel to the new frame to create a double glazing effect.
As with acoustic inserts there are key things to bear in mind if you’re thinking about buying acoustic acrylic panels:
- These acrylic window panes will not be nearly as effective as acoustic glazing.
- Noise reduction will be negligible if there are any air gaps around the glazing.
- They may affect the functionality of your window and, in some cases, damage the frame.
- Adding another layer of glass will add considerable weight to your window, which the frame may not be able to support.
5. REPLACE GLAZING WITH ACOUSTIC GLAZING
Perhaps the most drastic (and most expensive) option is to replace your existing glazing with specialist acoustic glazing. This is glazing that has been specially designed to prevent noise intrusion and is layered with PVB to further dampen sound.
Most acoustic glass will boast exemplary levels of noise reduction of between 40-55dB. This is considerably more than traditional double glazing which will reduce noise by ~25dB.
If you are thinking or replacing your glazing with acoustic glazing, consider:
- Acoustic glazing is a lot heavier than traditional glazing, and may cause your current window frames to warp over time.
- Soundproofing is only as strong as the weakest link. If your window frames perform poorly, or you have structural issues, acoustic glazing can be ineffective.
If you Google “how to soundproof windows” you will find a whole heap of suggestions and advice. Our suggestion is to go through the 5 solutions above and ask yourself:
- Does this fit in with my budget?
- Will it reduce noise as much as I need it to?
- Can I do this myself, or do I need a professional?
- Is this a long-term solution?
If you’re not satisfied with your answers then you do have another option…
INSTALLING SOUNDPROOF WINDOWS
When it comes to planning permission for soundproof windows, properties in most residential areas will have nothing to worry about. However, there are a few restrictions that you should be aware of before you begin any renovation project.
You will not need to apply for planning permission for the following work:
- The repair, or minor improvement of your existing windows (such as repainting, re-fixing).
- The insertion of new windows that are similar in appearance to those you already have in your property.
The addition of a bay window to your home will likely require planning permission as it is deemed an extension of your property. Additionally, upper-floor side windows will need to contain obscured glass and not open, or be 1.7 metres above the level of the floor.
When it comes to roof or skylights, planning permission won’t be necessary as long as the project is kept within the following bounds:
- The new window can’t protrude more than 150mm from the plane of the roof.
- The final installation is no higher than the existent highest point of the roof.
- Windows added to the side-slope are fitted with obscured glass.
CONSERVATION AREAS & LISTED BUILDINGS
When it comes to installing soundproof windows in conservation areas, things become a little trickier. These areas are protected by the ‘article 4 direction’, which prevents you from making serious alterations to your property that might affect its historical value.
In most conservation areas you will be allowed to upgrade to soundproof windows as long as the new frames are the same style, design and material as the old windows.
Unfortunately there are no standard rules for houses in conservation areas. Each local authority will determine their own set of standards. As such, you should speak to your Local Planning Authority before you place any orders for soundproof windows.
HOW TO PREPARE FOR INSTALLATION
In order to minimise installation time and prevent any accidents happening to your property, the following are a list of things you can do before you installing soundproof windows in your property.
- Secure all valuable items such as jewellery, laptops, cameras, phones, etc.
- Hide all removables (i.e. moveable furniture, removable decorations etc.) from the direct vicinity of the replacement area.
- Remove picture frames, paintings and any other wall decorations.
- Remove all blinds and curtains, tracks, shutters, etc.
- Temporarily disconnect all alarm systems connected to your windows.
In most cases, the installation company will also remove and dispense with your old windows, however it is best to verify this before the installation begins.
Thinking about installing soundproof windows in your home?
With timber soundproof windows, simple, regular maintenance is all you will need to do to keep your windows beautiful for many years to come.
Abrasive chemicals might damage the frame, so we suggest that you use a very mild soap and water, and a light rinse aid on the glass. Be sure to soak up any liquid from the timber to prevent any potential rot.
Any cracks that appear need to be covered with paint or stain as soon as possible. Any application of treatments to the wood needs to be carried out when the timber is dry in order to avoid trapping water in.
To keep ironmongery from sticking we suggest lubrication twice a year. This includes locks, which can be done by applying lubricant to the key and using it in the lock a couple of times.
Whilst condensation on the inside of your windows can be resolved by leaving the window open temporarily, condensation inside of the glazing is a sign that the glass has been compromised. This means that the seals will need to be replaced around the glazing and we advise you speak to your installation company.
HOW SOUND WORKS
Formed of compressions and rarefactions, sound moves at different speeds through different materials. Counterintuitively, sound actually travels rather poorly through air as it not very dense or elastic. On the other hand steel, which is much more elastic, allows sound to travel rapidly and with ease.
On the other, other hand, sound won’t travel anywhere at all in a vacuum. You see, sound requires matter to transmit its energy, and denser, more elastic materials work best as the molecules within the material make it easier for the wave to move.
Soundproof windows are designed on these principles. They use materials that will absorb sound or cause it to be reflected.
This graph describes a steady sound wave travelling through air, keeping the same tone throughout the duration. On the y-axis we have the amplitude of the wave, this describes how loud the sound is and is measured in decibels (dB).
The peak of the wave represents the point at which the molecules in the air are packed closest together, and the corresponding trough, when they are most spread apart. A sound with a steady pitch will always have the same differential in amplitude, though in reality, sound behaves far more erratically.
The frequency of the wavelengths determines the pitch of the sound. Those that are closer together produce a higher pitch sound, and those further apart a lower pitch.
Sound is perhaps best visualised in the 3rd dimension by the graphics below:
WHAT IS A DECIBEL
Throughout this website, we talk about decibel reductions, but what is a decibel?
A decibel is a measure of the intensity of a sound against a set logarithmic scale. As opposed to a linear scale (which increases by a set number with each unit), a logarithmic scale (which increases by a multiplication) is used in order to deal with the fact that sound has a massive range of quantities. Whilst this may sound complicated, we use a logarithmic scale to make it easier for us to understand sounds, as the numbers would be too large for us to grasp otherwise.
Logarithms are used when the numbers in question (in this case of the loudness of the sound) are far too large to be expressed simply. They are formed of three constituent parts, and are best explained by deconstructing the following equation:
1010 = 10x10x10x10x10x10x10x10x10x10 = 10000000000
Expressed as a logarithm this takes the form:
log10 (10000000000) = 10
Where the number ‘10’ is the base, 10000000000 is the power and 10 the answer.
When we are talking about sound we say that for every increase of ten decibels, the power or loudness of the sound increases by a multiple of 10. The following table outlines the decibel to power ratio increase.
So you can see that small increases in decibels are actually describing massive increases in the loudness of the sound.
DECIBEL LEVELS OF COMMON SOUNDS
In order to better understand what a decibel is, it’s perhaps easier to think about the decibel levels of common sounds.
|0||The smallest level of sound registered by the human ear. Also known as the ‘hearing treshold’.|
|30||A whisper in a library from 6 feet away.|
|50||A conversation at your home.|
|60||A conversation at a restaurant.|
|70||Using a vacuum.|
|80||A freight train at 15 metres (50ft), or a diesel train 30 metres (100ft) away.|
|90||A jets plane at one mile.|
|100||A jet plane at take off from 300 metres (980ft) away.|
|110||A live rock concert.|
|120||Thunder at less than 100 metres (328ft) away.|
|130||An air raid siren.|
|140||25 metres (82ft) from a jet engine at take off.|
SOUNDPROOF WINDOWS FAQS
HOW DO YOU MAKE A ROOM SOUNDPROOF?
HOW DO SOUNDPROOF WINDOWS WORK?
Soundproof windows work by reflecting, absorbing and dissipating sound waves. A combination of specialised glazing, layered hardwoods, dampeners and finishings reduce the strength of the wave by increasing the density and lowering the elasticity of the materials used in the construction of the window.
HOW DOES A DOUBLE PANE WINDOW WORK?
A double pane window houses two sheets of glazing separated by a layer of air, or in some cases inert gases like argon and xenon. These gases are poor conductors of heat, and so reduce the amount lost from your property (or entering it). By making sure the gap between the glazing is kept to a minimum, convection currents are minimised, further reducing heat loss.
WHAT ARE ACOUSTIC GLASS WINDOWS?
Acoustic windows are simply another term for soundproof windows. They are windows that prevent noise from entering or exiting your property.
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SECONDARY GLAZING AND DOUBLE GLAZING?
Double glazing is a window unit constructed using 2 sheets of glass with a gap between them. This is an isolated unit that is installed on the outside of your property. On the other hand, secondary glazing is glazing unit (whether single or double glazed) that is installed within your existing window frame (usually on the internal side of the sill).
Given the large gap between the external window and the secondary glazing, you can expect dramatic noise reduction values. However, unless the noise pollution problem is unbearable, most clients will avoid installing secondary windows. This is because they will remove any sill space you have and are generally deemed to be unsightly.
HOW DO YOU MAKE A ROOM SOUNDPROOF?
When it comes to soundproofing a room, there are a lot of options for you to choose from. What solution you choose will depend upon why you need to soundproof, and the current make-up of your property. However, regardless of your reasons, the following four things are key to soundproofing:
- Adding Mass
- Plugging Gaps
STOP SOUND LEAVING YOUR ROOM
- To stop noise escaping your room, you should mount all sound units on vibration insulation pads.
- Acoustic wedge panels are the choice of musicians around the globe. Made out of polyurethane foam, they come with adhesive backs so you can install these on your walls yourself. If renting, you might want to check with your landlord before installation.
- Sealing up vents will stop sound seeping out of those cracks, but can cause hazards like damp buildup if performed inappropriately.
The following are the most common techniques used to soundproof a room:
- Soundproof windows will greatly reduce noise pollution.
- Installing soundproof curtains or blankets on the walls and windows. These will shave off a few decibels, however, if you already have thick walls or insulated walls, this will have a negligible effect.
- If possible you can construct independent soundproof stud walls using 75mm stud. These are optimally installed 25mm from your existing walls.
- A suspended soundproof ceiling installed below your current ceiling can be mounted on hangers in order to absorb noise from above.
- Acoustic mineral wool can be installed between the joists in the floor with a heavy acoustic membrane (soundproof mat) laid on top. A single layer of 2mm can provide up to a 24dB reduction, and you can use as many layers as you see fit.
- Your room should be inspected for air gaps which need to be filled with materials such as acoustical caulk. Foam gaskets can be used to seal any space around windows.
BUY SOUNDPROOF WINDOWS
Installing soundproof windows in your property will not only improve your quality of life and improve your health, but add serious value to your home. So say no to sound now!
We help homeowners identify the best possible products to soundproof their home.
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SPECIALIST SOUNDPROOF WINDOWS
Through specialist manufacturing and precision technology, we can reduce noise pollution by up to 95%. By installing specialist soundproof windows, we are offering you the best products available on the market. Don’t compromise on quality. Don’t compromise on design.